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β-Lactam (beta-lactam) and glycopeptide antibiotics work by inhibiting or interfering with cell wall synthesis of the target bacteria.

Penicillin is one of the earliest discovered and widely used antibiotic agents, derived from the Penicillium mold. Antibiotics are natural substances that are released by bacteria and fungi into the their environment, as a means of inhibiting other organisms – it is chemical warfare on a microscopic scale.


Penicillin Flowchart-page-001

Click for PDF copy: Penicillin Flowchart

Cephalosporins are a group of broad spectrum, semi-synthetic beta-lactam antibiotics derived from the mould Cephalosporium.


Cephalosporins flowchart-page-001

Click for PDF copy: Cephalosporins flowchart

Carbapenems, Aztreonam and Vancomycine

Carbapenim Aztreonam vancomycin flowchart-page-001

Click for PDF copy: Carbapenim Aztreonam vancomycin flowchart

source: DBQ,MD Bacterial cell wall inhibitors