β-Lactam (beta-lactam) and glycopeptide antibiotics work by inhibiting or interfering with cell wall synthesis of the target bacteria.
Penicillin is one of the earliest discovered and widely used antibiotic agents, derived from the Penicillium mold. Antibiotics are natural substances that are released by bacteria and fungi into the their environment, as a means of inhibiting other organisms – it is chemical warfare on a microscopic scale.
Click for PDF copy: Penicillin Flowchart
Cephalosporins are a group of broad spectrum, semi-synthetic beta-lactam antibiotics derived from the mould Cephalosporium.
Click for PDF copy: Cephalosporins flowchart
Carbapenems, Aztreonam and Vancomycine
Click for PDF copy: Carbapenim Aztreonam vancomycin flowchart
source: DBQ,MD Bacterial cell wall inhibitors
The sympathetic nervous system mediates the classic “fight or flight” response – pupils dilate, the heart races, sphincters contract, and hair stands on end. “If you have a cat at home, put his favorite food in a dish. Then just before he starts to eat, snatch the dish away. Before he scratches you, look at his pupils – that’s a [sympathetic nervous system] response,” a mentor once told me. Fortunately, if you’re not a cat person, you can also elicit this response by mentioning the USMLE Step 1 to any second year medical student in America.
Having just experienced this exam myself, I can attest to its grueling nature – a 7+ hour exam on all one has learned in the first two years of medical school (with some topics reaching back to undergraduate education). However, the test is also a rite of passage, and I can’t say I disagree…
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